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Capital levy "varlık vergisi" in Istanbul

Capital levy "varlık vergisi" in Istanbul (21/12/2007 v.1) Φόρος "varlık vergisi" στην Κωνσταντινούπολη (21/12/2007 v.1)

The law on Capital Levy was debated and approved by the Turkish parliament on 11 November 1942. It was clearly an important legislation, not only from an economic, but also from a political and cultural point of view. It was apparent to taxpayers that the tax was ‘anti-Minority’ legislation par excellence. According to the law, those taxpayers who were unable to pay their tax within one month began to be sent to labour camps with the aim of performing physical labour and working off their taxes.



Cemeteries of the Greek-Orthodox in Constantinople

Cemeteries of the Greek-Orthodox in Constantinople - has not been published yet Νεκροταφεία των Ρωμιών στην Κωνσταντινούπολη (13/4/2007 v.1)

The cemeteries of the Greek-Orthodox population in Constantinople, monuments of the robustness of the Greek Orthodox population at the end of the Ottoman era, are today threatened with extinction. Their preservation is urgently needed, as they constitute quite important monuments of the collective memory of the minority.


Chalke Gate (Entrance of Great Palace)

Chalke Gate (Entrance of Great Palace) (17/4/2008 v.1) Χαλκή Πύλη (η είσοδος του Μεγάλου Παλατίου) (17/4/2008 v.1)

Chalke (Bronze) Gate, rendered from Greek “Brazen House”, was the main vestibule of the Great Palace, so named either for bronze tiles of its roof or for its bronze doors. A famous icon of Christ was placed over the doors. Now lost, this imperial Gate originally facing the Augustaion, south of Hagia Sophia, was one of the most important architectural symbols of Constantinople.



Chalki (Heybeliada)

Chalki (Heybeliada) (2/5/2007 v.1) Χάλκη (13/4/2007 v.1)

Chalki (Heybeliada), stretching over 2.5 square kilometers, is the second largest island of the Princes' Islands complex, located between Antigoni (Burgazada), Pringipos (Büyükada) and Cape Maltepe on the coast of Asia Minor. For many centuries, the history of Chalki was closely related to the history of its great monasteries. Until the middle of the 19th century, the majority of the inhabitants were Greek fishermen. Nowadays, its Christian Orthodox population numbers around 100 people.



Charity Society of Ypsomatheia, Psamathia (Samatya)

Charity Society of Ypsomatheia, Psamathia (Samatya) - to be assigned Φιλόπτωχος Αδελφότης Υψωμαθείων, Ψαμαθιά - to be assigned


Chora monastery (Kariye Camii)

Chora monastery (Kariye Camii) (28/6/2007 v.1) Μονή Χώρας (Καριγιέ Τζαμί) (13/4/2007 v.1)

The Chora Monastery was built on the sixth hill of Constantinople, about 150m. from the Theodosian wall. It was dedicated to Christ as the Life-giving Saviour and to Mary as the container of life. It is one of the most significant examples of Byzantine art, its architecture representing the Middle Byzantine period and the decoration representing the Late Byzantine period. The exceptional, elegant mosaics and frescoes of the Chora monastery are characteristic of the second phase of the...



Chora of Byzantium (Antiquity)

Chora of Byzantium (Antiquity) (18/4/2007 v.1) Χώρα Βυζαντίου (Αρχαιότητα) (13/4/2007 v.1)

The Megarian colony of Byzantium was surrounded by an extensive "chora", which extended from Selymbria and Bizanthe (Raedestus) in the west to the mouth of the Black Sea in the east-northeast. This area comprised several settlements, mainly of fishermen and farmers, as well as commercial posts of other Greek cities. The resources of this area were considerable and varied: fishing, wood felling, agriculture and commerce in particular secured prosperity for the city.



Christakis Zografos

Christakis Zografos - to be assigned Χρηστάκης Ζωγράφος - to be assigned


Константин XI Палеолог

Константин XI Палеолог (11/10/2007 v.1) Constantine XI Palaiologos (11/2/2008 v.1) Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ΄ Παλαιολόγος - has not been published yet

Константин XI Палеолог (1449-1453), син Манојла II и српске принцезе Јелене Драгаш, рођен 1405. године, последњи је византијски цар. Византијско царство је у његово време било сведено само на Цариград са најближом околином и делове Грчке. У два маха, 1423-1424 и 1437-1440, као регент замењивао је брата Јована VIII када је овај путовао на Запад. Имао је апанажу на Пелопонезу који је тада био највиталнији део Византијског царства. Као цар, од 1449. године, из политичких разлога био је присталица...



Константинопол по време на Латинската империя

Константинопол по време на Латинската империя (12/3/2008 v.1) Constantinople in Latin period (20/3/2008 v.1) Κωνσταντινούπολη την εποχή της Λατινοκρατίας (18/10/2007 v.1)

Латинската империя в Константинопол съществува 57 г. - от превземането на града на 13 април 1204 до 25 юли 1261 г. За кратковременната си власт над част от византийската територия и над самата й столица, латините въвеждат много промени, но запазват същевременно и някои от традициите на византийско управление. В Константинопол не са извършени съществени строителни и градоустройствени дейности. След 1230 г. настъпва период на постоянен упадък и постепенно загиване на империята